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Which spinal reflexes are classified as superficial reflexes? Select all that apply.
Rationale: Option 1: Plantar reflex is a superficial reflex, and it involves spinal cord segments L5, S1, and S2. Option 2: Achilles reflex is a deep tendon reflex, and it involves spinal cord segment S1 and S2.
Option 3: Patellar reflex is a deep tendon reflex, and it involves spinal cord segment L2, L3, and L4. Option 4: Cremasteric reflex is a superficial reflex, and it involves spinal cord segments L1 and L2. Option 5: Bulbocavernosus reflex is a superficial reflex, and it involves spinal cord segments S3 and S4.
Arrange the stages of moral development as described by Kohlberg.
1. Good boy-nice girl orientation
2. Universal ethical principles orientation
3. Legalistic, social contract orientation
4. Law-and-order orientation
5. Punishment-obedience orientation
6. Personal interest orientation
According to Kohlberg, children develop a moral reasoning ability which progresses in a particular sequence until they reach adulthood. Thefirst stage is “punishment-obedience orientation” stage. In this stage, the child understands that an action is right if it avoids punishment. The second stage is the “personal interest orientation” stage. In this stage, the child understands that an action is right if it satisfies personal needs. The third stage is the “good boy-nice girl orientation” stage. In the third stage, the child begins to understand that an action is good if it pleases others. The fourth stage is “law-and-order orientation” stage. By this time, the individual believes that an action is right if it follows the rules. The fifth stage is “legalistic, social contract orientation” stage. At this stage the right action is decided in terms of individual rights and standards agreed upon by the whole society. The sixthstage is the “universal ethical principles orientation” stage. At this stage, the right action is determined by the individual’s conscience and abstract principles.
Welcome back to this weeks NCLEX test taking tip brought to you by Davis Edge NCLEX-RN! Stay tuned for more tips to come!
Test-taking tip #7: Identify the global option.
Global options are more broad and wide-ranging than specific options.
One or more of the other options might be included under the umbrella of a global option.
Examine global options carefully because they are often the correct answer.
For example, a global option might say, “Keep patients clean and dry” versus a specific option, which might say, “Wash a patient’s perineal area after toileting.”
Study tips: Construct as many specific options as possible that could be included under the umbrella of a global option. Construct as many global options as possible in relation to the content presented in the stem. Doing so will increase your ability to identify a global option.
Rationale: Option 1: Aplastic anemia is not characterized by sickle- or crescent-shaped erythrocytes. Option 2: Sickle cell anemia is characterized by sickle- or crescent-shaped erythrocytes. In this case, the image depicts the presence of crescent-shaped erythrocytes. Option 3: Iron deficiency anemia is not characterized by sickle-shaped erythrocytes. Option 4: Acquired thrombocytopenia is associated with a decrease in platelets.
Test-taking tip #6: Use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the ABCs (Airway, Breathing, and Circulation) to identify the option that is the priority.
This technique is best used when answering a question that asks what the nurse should do first or which action is most important.
Examine each option and identify which level need according to Maslow is associated with each option. Identify whether any of the options are associated with maintaining a patent airway and, if not, examine each option from the perspective of maintaining breathing and so on.
For example, in a question associated with postoperative care, an option that addresses the presence of an oral airway generally is the priority.
Study tips: Start by identifying the action that is least important and work backward toward the option with the action that is most important. Then identify the reasoning behind the assigned order. This technique focuses on the how and why and helps you to clarify the reasoning underlying your critical thinking. This technique is often done best when working in a small study group.
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