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Arrange the stages of moral development as described by Kohlberg.
1. Good boy-nice girl orientation
2. Universal ethical principles orientation
3. Legalistic, social contract orientation
4. Law-and-order orientation
5. Punishment-obedience orientation
6. Personal interest orientation
According to Kohlberg, children develop a moral reasoning ability which progresses in a particular sequence until they reach adulthood. The first stage is “punishment-obedience orientation” stage. In this stage, the child understands that an action is right if it avoids punishment. The second stage is the “personal interest orientation” stage. In this stage, the child understands that an action is right if it satisfies personal needs. The third stage is the “good boy-nice girl orientation” stage. In the third stage, the child begins to understand that an action is good if it pleases others. The fourth stage is “law-and-order orientation” stage. By this time, the individual believes that an action is right if it follows the rules. The fifth stage is “legalistic, social contract orientation” stage. At this stage the right action is decided in terms of individual rights and standards agreed upon by the whole society. The sixth stage is the “universal ethical principles orientation” stage. At this stage, the right action is determined by the individual’s conscience and abstract principles.